Bangladesh /bɑːŋlɑːdɛʃ/; /ˌbæŋɡləˈdæʃ/ (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ, pronounced: [ˈbaŋlad̪eʃ] , lit. "The nation of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (Bengali: গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônôprôjatôntri Bangladesh), is a country in South Asia. It is bordered by India to its west, north and east; Burma to its southeast and separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the Chicken’s Neck Corridor. To its south, it faces the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is the eighth-most populous nation in the world, with a population of over 160 million people, and is also among the world's most densely populated countries. It forms part of the ancient and historic ethno-linguistic region of Bengal, together with the neighbouring Indian states of West Bengal and Tripura. The borders of modern Bangladesh took shape during the Partition of Bengal and British India in 1947, when the region became the eastern wing of the newly formed state of Pakistan. Following years of political exclusion, ethnic and linguistic discrimination, and economic neglect by the politically dominant western wing, a surge of popular agitation, nationalism and civil disobedience led in 1971 to the Bangladesh Liberation War, resulting in the separation of the region from Pakistan and the formation of an independent Bangladesh. After independence, the new state proclaimed a secular multiparty democracy. The country then endured decades of poverty, famine, political turmoil and military coups. Since the restoration of democracy in 1991, the country has experienced relative calm and economic progress, though its main political parties remain polarized.Bangladesh is a unitary secular parliamentary republic, with an elected parliament called the Jatiyo Sangshad. It has seven administrative divisions and 64 districts. The Bengalis the country's largest ethnic group, whereas the indigenous peoples in northern and southeastern districts form a significant and diverse ethnic minority. Geographically, the country is dominated by the fertile Bengal delta, the largest delta in the world. It has been described as the "land of rivers". Bangladesh is identified as a Next Eleven economy. According to the United Nations in 2010, the country is making major strides in human development, including significant progress in the areas of gender equity, universal primary education, the empowerment of women, reducing population growth, food production, health and renewable energy. The poverty rate has declined considerably since independence, and per-capita income has doubled from 1975 levels. Major cities such as Dhaka and Chittagong have been the driving forces behind much of the recent growth. However, the country continues to face a number of major political and social challenges, including endemic bureaucratic and political corruption, widespread poverty, political instability, overpopulation and vulnerability to global climate change.Bangladesh is a pioneer and founding member of SAARC. It is the world’s largest contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations. It is a founding member of the Developing 8 Countries and BIMSTEC, and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the OIC, the NAM and the G-77.